Lately we’ve seen a few soybean diseases show up within our growing region. It’s important to be able to differentiate between diseases that may show similar symptoms out in the field, such as brown stem rot (BSR), sudden death syndrome (SDS) and charcoal rot. While a disease like frogeye leaf spot may be easily distinguishable, it may be harder to verify what these other diseases are without taking a closer look into the plant.
SDS and BSR are similar looking when they start to show symptoms on the leaves, but when you break the stem of the plant, BSR will have a brown inner pith, compared to a more normal, healthy looking stem on SDS. You may also find blue growths on the roots of an SDS affected plant. Charcoal rot has more of a yellowing leaf symptom than interveinal chlorosis and typically shows up when the plant is stressed from heat and drought. Charcoal rot also creates small dark spores in and around the stem of the plant.
Crop rotation, choosing varieties with tolerance, average-to-later planting dates can all help to minimize issues with these diseases later in the season. Seed treatments will not help with BSR or charcoal rot, but ILEVO can help with SDS susceptible areas.
It is necessary to have a game plan if you have had a history of seeing any of these diseases present on your acres. Thinking ahead with variety selection, crop rotation, as well as other management techniques can help you maximize yield through susceptible fields.
- Jonathan Williams, Southern Region Product Agronomist
This spring has been a whirlwind of weather patterns throughout our region. While many farms have corn and even soybeans out of the ground, and others are still weeks away from planting, knowing your options for the possibility of a replant before that seed gets put into the ground can ease some tension if the problem may arise.
First and foremost, know that as a 100% by-crop customer of Hoegemeyer that is planting products with the LumiGEN™seed treatment, you have the opportunity to get your replant seed for FREE*. Even if you are not a 100% customer, know that, under some conditions, you may still have this opportunity. Speak with your DSM or Agronomist to learn more.
It is also important to consider the potential for yield loss from delayed planting due to replant. The possibility of a reduced stand in your first planting may still be more feasible than the potential yield loss due to a shorter growing season that your replant seed will have to deal with. While every situation is different, the main points to consider no matter what weather or planting situation you’ve been dealt is outlined below.
Planting date - and possible planting date of the replant
Expected stand loss
Hybrid or variety planted
Soil conditions that may hinder any growth problems into the future
In summary, if you feel you may need to replant or have unexpected stand loss, don't hesitate to reach out to your local Hoegemeyer representative so we can evaluate options. Evaluating and resolving these issues as early as possible will get you on track to having the best opportunity for a successful crop.
- Jonathan Williams, Southern Team Product Agronomist
*Refer to 2018-19 Hoegemeyer Business Manual for specific Replant Program Guidelines
Components of LumiGEN technologies for soybeans are applied at a Corteva Agriscience, Agriculture Division of DowDuPont production facility, or by an independent sales representative of Corteva Agriscience or
its affiliates. Not all sales representatives offer treatment services, and costs and other charges may vary. See your sales representative for details.
Seed applied technologies exclusive to Corteva Agriscience and its affiliates.®, TM, SM Trademarks or Service Marks of Dow AgroSciences, DuPont or Pioneer and their affiliated companies or respective owners.
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Corn, Corn and soybeans, Jonathan Williams, LumiGEN seed treatment, replant guidelines, Soybeans
Soybean seed treatments provide a means to capture greater yield by protecting the genetic yield potential of every seed, bag and acre. Seed treatments enable each field to maximize productivity as well as minimize risk. There are no rescue treatments for soil insects or pathogens. Growers can only protect each field from them through a preventative approach. Here are a few reasons why seed treatment are profitable.
Wider Planting Window
Planting in cool, wet soils may result in slower emergence
Increased seed and seedling disease pressure
Seed treatments allow for earlier planting dates and significantly reduced likelihood of replant
Tolerance to High Residue Environments
Increased crop residues can harbor insects and pathogens
Residue is associated with cool soil temperatures which delay emergence
Improved Soybean Plant Performance
Improved seedling vigor and emergence
2.5 bushel average yield advantage for Right Stand over no treatment
2-10 bushel yield advantage for Right Stand® + ILeVO® over base package depending on severity of SDS and SCN pressure
However, not all seed treatments are created equal. The true value of a specific seed treatment can be obtained with three questions.
What individual products make up the seed treatment package?
What rate(s) are being applied? This is critically important!
How accurately are the individual products being applied?
The Right Stand® soybean seed treatment from Hoegemeyer is a proprietary mix of chemistries including an insecticide, a biological root growth stimulant, and multiple mode of action fungicides applied at full labeled rates providing broad spectrum pest protection.
A common misconception is that seed treatments are only needed for early planting dates. Although early planting dates are at increased risk from several pests, a common disease such as phytophthora which is the #1 most yield limiting soybean disease in the U.S., is also very active under warm and wet soil conditions. Areas in fields with poor drainage and compaction are especially prone to phytophthora infection. Soybean plants that are partially susceptible may appear stunted and yield less than a resistant or non-infected plant.
New for 2018, Right Stand includes Dupont™ Lumisena™ for industry leading control of phytophthora as well as improved seedling vigor and emergence. DuPont™ Lumisena™ contains a new active ingredient - Oxathiapiprolin. This new mode of action fungicide works to control oomycete infestation during multiple stages of the pathogen’s life cycle, resulting in increased stands, healthier plants, and overall greater crop efficiency.
Contact your local Hoegemeyer DSM or Agronomist to put Right Standwith Dupont Lumisena to work on your farm in 2018.
ILeVO® is a registered trademark of Bayer. EverGol® is a registered trademark of Bayer.
Conditions have been wet and cool across many midwest states this planting season. What does this mean for your planted soybean fields?
Soybean stand loss early in the season is often due to “damping off” which is a broad term which refers to seed and seedling diseases. The four big ones are pythium, phytophthora, fusarium and rhizoctonia. Pythophthora and pythium are often the two most common and troubling for us in our market area. These two pathogens are sometimes also referred to in slang as “water molds” as they thrive in saturated soils with free water. They have spores that can survive in soil and crop residue for long periods of time and when soils become saturated with free water spores can detect plant root exudates. They then literally swim to the root and infect. Quite simply, without wet soils they are not able to readily infect, so in drier years they are typically not an issue.
Stand loss early in the season with early-to-normal planting dates is more typically associated with pythium because it thrives in cold wet soils; while phytophthora infects more readily in somewhat warmer wet soils. With the recent cooler weather, pythium may be the leading candidate as the pathogen causing any stand loss/damping off within fields but an actual lab diagnosis can often be the only way to 100% confirm the pathogen in question as all four of the major soybean damping off diseases can be hard to distinguish from one another with the naked eye and their infection environments can overlap each other.
Many soybean varieties offer native genetic resistance to specific races of phytophthora which is very valuable. However, there are many different races of phytophthora present even within the same field, so one specific phytophthora gene may not always be effective. Partial resistance or “field tolerance” is also a rating which you will see in most product guides which is just as important. The fungicidal components of virtually all complete soybean seed treatment packages also offers a level of protection against the damping off pathogens. However, that protection can simply be overwhelmed under high pressure saturated soil conditions and begins to slowly fade following the first few weeks after planting.
Use of Pre-Emerge Herbicides
Soybean seedlings may also be further stressed when PPO soybean pre-emerge herbicides containing flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, or saflufenacil have been used in conjunction with cool and wet soil conditions. Soybean pre-emerge herbicides containing these actives are quite common in the industry and used on lots of soybean acres as they are generally good at controlling problematic small seeded broadleaves such as marestail and waterhemp. These herbicides can cause some stunting of seedlings most often due to some minor to moderate burning of the cotyledons and hypocotyl as the seedling emerges through the soil/herbicide layer. Cool wet conditions make it harder for the young seedling to metabolize the chemical.
It is quite possible that any fields currently showing damping off symptoms may have more than one thing going on. Variety, pathogen and herbicide may all play a part.
Contact your local Hoegemeyer DSM or Agronomist for more information.
Every year, when the calendar gets close to June, the question of whether to back off on relative maturity or not arises at least somewhere in the Hoegemeyer footprint. Some areas this spring have been continually hit with significant rain events that have not allowed corn planting to progress. No matter what date you planted your corn, it still takes about 125 growing degree units (GDU’s) for corn to emerge. In addition, research has shown that full season corn hybrids can also adapt to GDU’s needed for growth and maturity when planted later. For example, a corn hybrid will adjust to late planting by reducing the GDU’s necessary to reach black layer by about 6 units per day. An example would be a hybrid planted on May 20th that would require about 150 fewer GDU’s than the same hybrid planted on April 25th. Although the time required for a late planted hybrid to go from silk to black layer is increased, the time period from planting to flowering (tassel) is actually significantly reduced. Although later corn planting dates are not beneficial overall in terms of yield response, later planting dates will help accelerate emergence out of the ground and the plant will benefit from more measurable GDU’s per day after emergence compared to significantly earlier dates.
There is a point when backing up in maturity does make sense, especially as one moves north. In general, the best chance to approach optimum yield vs. planting date is still achieved by sticking with the normal adapted corn maturity for that area until the last week of May. After that, reducing maturity by about 5 days is justified as we approach June 1st. As we enter the 2nd week of June, reducing maturity by another 5 days is justified. Beyond the 2nd week of June, planting corn is usually not advised. Note that these estimates vary some depending on the individual situation and geography. If we were able to predict a cooler than normal grain filling period (August and early September), then one might error on the side of caution and plant an earlier hybrid the closer we get to June.
Questions regarding corn replant? Several factors come into play but as the calendar moves into the 1st week of June, more times than not, the best choice is to leave your remaining stand. Table 2 from Iowa State University gives estimated yield potential for corn at different final plant populations and planting dates.
Heavy, persistent rains have also delayed soybean planting for several areas of the Hoegemeyer footprint. Take a look at this article from UNL extension in regards to delayed soybean planting decisions and practices. http://cropwatch.unl.edu/delayed-planting-in-soybeans This article uses June 15 as a potential date to consider a 1/2 maturity group reduction (example would be reducing from a 3.5 RM to a 3.0 RM). However, we feel June 20 is a more relevant date for locations south of Interstate 80. As one moves north of Highway 20 in Nebraska and Iowa, June 1st can be used as a potential date for a ½ maturity group reduction (example would be reducing from a 2.5 RM to a 2.0 RM). Past situations would show that fuller season soybeans give the best chance for yield, especially as we move south, for several reasons:
1. Late planted full-season soybeans south of I-80 are not at the same risk of a fall freeze as those planted further north.
2. For the most part, short season soybeans do not move south well. Soybeans are triggered to go into reproductive mode based off daylight. They are more sensitive to photoperiod than corn. There is typically more heat as you move south, but also longer nights. Soybeans that are very early in maturity, that are planted late into a southern zone will potentially be very short and will not produce much for pods or canopy.
3. Fuller season soybeans still have the best potential to capitalize on late season rains come September and early October.
If you have specific questions about your farm, please don’t hesitate to contact someone on our Agronomy team. We are here to ensure the long-term success on your farm!